Weather in Cracow
KrakÃ³w has an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the KÃ¶ppen climate classification system, one of the easternmost localities in Europe to do so. A mere 100 km (62 mi) north-east of KrakÃ³w (east of TarnÃ³w, and north of Kielce), the January mean dips below ?3 Â°C (27 Â°F) and thus becomes continental (Dfb) in nature. The KrakÃ³w climate is also influenced by its far inland position, with significant temperature differences between seasons. Average temperatures in summer range from 18 to 19.6 Â°C (64 to 67 Â°F) and in winter from ?2.0 to ?0.6 Â°C (28 to 31 Â°F). The average annual temperature is 8.7 Â°C (48 Â°F). In summer temperatures often exceed 25 Â°C (77 Â°F), and even 30 Â°C (86 Â°F), while winter drops to ?5 Â°C (23 Â°F) at night and about 0 Â°C (32 Â°F) at day; during very cold nights the temperature can drop to ?15 Â°C (5 Â°F). Since KrakÃ³w lies near the Tatra Mountains, there are often occurrences of halny blowing (a foehn wind), causing temperatures to rise rapidly, and even in winter reach up to 20 Â°C (68 Â°F).
History of Cracow after 1918
After the war, under the Polish People's Republic, the intellectual and academic community of KrakÃ³w was put under total political control. The universities were soon deprived of printing rights and autonomy.63 The Stalinist government ordered the construction of the country's largest steel mill in the newly created suburb of Nowa Huta.64 The creation of the giant Lenin Steelworks (now Sendzimir Steelworks owned by Mittal) sealed KrakÃ³w's transformation from a university city to an industrial centre.65 The new working class, drawn by the industrialisation of KrakÃ³w, contributed to rapid population growth.
In an effort that spanned two decades, Karol WojtyÅ‚a, cardinal archbishop of KrakÃ³w, successfully lobbied for permission to build the first churches in the new industrial suburbs.6566 In 1978, WojtyÅ‚a was elevated to the papacy as John Paul II, the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. In the same year, UNESCO placed KrakÃ³w Old Town on the first-ever list of World Heritage Sites.
The Vistula (/?v?stj?l?/; Polish: WisÅ‚a ?viswa) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at 1,047 kilometres (651 miles) in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is 194,424 km2 (75,068 sq mi), of which 168,699 km2 (65,135 sq mi) lies within Poland (splitting the country in half). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.
The Vistula rises at Barania GÃ³ra in the south of Poland, 1,220 meters (4,000 ft) above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (BiaÅ‚a WiseÅ‚ka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna WiseÅ‚ka).1 It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including KrakÃ³w, Sandomierz, Warsaw, PÅ‚ock, WÅ‚ocÅ‚awek, ToruÅ„, Bydgoszcz, Åšwiecie, GrudziÄ…dz, Tczew and GdaÅ„sk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew WiÅ›lany) or directly into the GdaÅ„sk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, ÅšmiaÅ‚a WisÅ‚a, Martwa WisÅ‚a, Nogat and Szkarpawa).